How old is English?
 This marriage was reported to be a marriage of love. Something unusual at a time when almost all marriages within the upper class were arranged. Vortigern was some 30 years older than his wife.
 Myths and legends
This is like the story of Robin Hood: the later the version, the more a simple but daring criminal changes into an English aristocratic freedom fighter. Here too, a commoner is denied success. Only an aristocrat can have this honour.
The word 'viking' means 'village people' (Wick+ing). Vikings became known under that name in the 10th century.
For us, vikings had a weird morality. The following story illustrates it:
Anglo-Saxons shared with them a strong sense of morality.
The rebellion (2)
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives
us a lot of details, but also seems to be an attempt to rearrange
historical facts to obtain seemingly more logic. It reports 4 battles
in Kent against Anglo-Saxons during the rebellion. Hengest
participated, as did Vortimer, the son of Vortigern.
In an attempt to create more logic, the Chronicle puts Hengest on the
Saxon side. No Saxon defeat is mentioned, but the geographical sequence
of the battles suggests a Saxon retreat and the Chronicle locates the
last battle in Wippedesfleot (AD 445?), the very
place where the Saxons allegedly first landed.
Nennius explains that Vortigern re-invited
Hengest and his Anglo-Saxons after their defeat. Was Vortigern
completely stupid? Why did nobody stop him? Why was no major protest
reported when old Vortigern married Hengest's daughter? 
The Anglo-Saxons main force never ‘took power’.
Hengest never conquered the county of Kent. He received command over
it, for loyal services. Vortigern was not forced to marry
Hengest's daughter. Top Anglo-Saxon officers were already a part of
British high society. This officers settled and merged with the
landlord families. In other words: integration became complete. It
brought a win-win relation between the new military leaders and the old
British class of landlords. They gave a new dimension to the local
upper class: it would now become a class of warriors and
rulers, far more than ‘just’ landlords. Let's not forget that
protective Rome was gone. The new emerging families became the first
real aristocracy in England.
The southwestern alliance stood against the 'London' council. The political situation bore many similarities with the much later civil wars such as The War of the Roses or The Cromwellian Revolution. This alliance was not confined to the southwest only. Some eastern lords must have joined the alliance but loyalties shifted all the time.
It is probable that some ambitious east-British
landlord families saw their chance to confiscate the estates of their
political enemies or to solve an age old feud. Some southwestern (or
Welsh) families had been involved in tax collection for the Roman
authorities (tax collectors were allowed to keep some 10%). They were
targeted too. Some of the neighbouring proto-English lords must have
sent their Anglo-Saxon-led guard to do the job unofficially.
it was about protection... In return for his silence, the
Anglo-Saxon captain, the son-in-law, received the opportunity
to acquire control over or even the usufruct (the right to keep the
yield) of the domain. In other words: Welsh land was confiscated by
'Anglo-Saxons' with the total but secret approval of their
What happened after the rebellion was a reorganization of the military command structure. The example is the function of Hengest. As the military governor (commander in chief) of Kent, he had the power to assemble a number of the local Saxon guards and send them to where a 'situation' occurred. This brought great advantages for the local lords. The number of local guardsmen on each individual estate (major farm or castle) could be kept small, which limited the costs. Potential strong ambitions of a local lord could be balanced: he would face an assembled force, and most certainly be defeated. The lords protected but also checked each other. At the same time, this structure meant that there were reserve troops and backup. Such military organizations must have been installed all over the east of Britain and were the core of the later Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. This system is in fact a mix of Roman organization and German local defense strategy. In many cases, the local military governor was a high ranking and fully integrated German (he had become a member of an important east-British family). This explains the name of those kingdoms: power became associated with the Anglo-Saxons.
Events during the last part of the 5th century are very confusing because civil wars are typically confusing. A religious war (Pelagian heresy against Catholicism) aggravated the problems. Pelagius preached that ‘Rome’ was not necessary to go to heaven. Notice the similarity with the later Anglican Church. The Pope (not bearing this title at the time) in Catholic Rome tried desperately to regain power by sending ‘missionaries’ to convert people (read: bring them back under the rule of Rome).