How old is English?
 'Wier' :see Etymologisch Woordenboek v/h Nederlands.
 Viromandui. The Latin character 'v' could be pronounced 'w','v','u' according to the word. The Latin word 'vinum' (wine) was pronounced 'winum' at the time of the Roman republic and during the first century of the Roman Empire. The Greek word 'oinos' (wine') was also pronounced 'winos'. This original pronunciation survived in the Germanic languages. So, it should be 'winology' and not Oenology.
 'Celtic' does not imply a language. It is about Celtic culture.
 Wick : related to the Dutch verb 'wijken'; Old Saxon 'wikan'; Old High German 'wihhan'; Old English 'wican'; Old Norse 'vika', all meaning: to give way, to retreat, to recede. It probably refers to 'where the water receded'.
 'bad' is a PIE word for city in Urdu and Hindi. Example: Islamabad = city of Islam. 'bad' or 'bat' can also mean
Etymology of the Belgian tribes
Etymology of the word Nervius (plural: Nervii) and Treverus (Treveri):
*Ner + *wie, *wier. Ner (say 'near') means 'food'. The middle Dutch verb is ge-neren = 'to
feed, to keep, to maintain alive'; Old Lowfranconian: nerian, Old Saxon: ginerian; Old High German: (gi)nerian: to heal, to hood; Old
Frisian: nera: maintain, feed; Gothic: nasjan: to save, to heal; modern German
nähren, to feed, nurture. Derived is the noun 'nering' = farm, factory, enterprise.
The meaning of the word Treveri is similar. *Tree + *wier. Tree is a word which survives in modern English:
“a perennial plant having a trunk, bole or woody stem”. So: Treveria meant: land of the forest villages. Their alleged
capital was the modern city of Trier in Germany. This place was actually a civitas, which was most probably founded just
outside the traditional realm of the Treverians, again for political reasons. The Treverians are known to be the
ancestors of the modern people of Luxemburg. Luxemburg is still a land of forests. The original land of the Treveri was
bigger: It stretched way into modern Belgium and once comprised most of the east part of the modern Ardennes.
The position of the language border was much more to the south then commonly known. The blue dotted line is the approximate border of Belgium/Belgica.
Morini: The tribe's name Morini is derived from the PIE word *mori and either meant "sea" or "lake".
The word occurs in most Proto-Indo-European languages either as *mori or *mari. (Compare: Armorica). The
proto-Flemish word for "polder " is moer (plural: moeren). The modern French part of the region is called
Les Moëres. The name Morini probably refers to salty marshes and not to the sea itself. The "-in" in
Morini is a Germanic plural (today written '-en' like in children). Zosimus (5th century) described their
city 'Bononia' (today: Boulogne-sur-Mer) as Germanic. The word 'moer' is still found in local place-names such as: Moere
(near Gistel), Moerkerke, Moerbrugge, De Moeren, Moerdijkstraat. Note that not all moer- place-names are situated in the
polders. Moerbrugge lays to the east of Brugge and is build upon sandy ground.
Menapii: *Meen + *ab-a. Du.: meen / Eng.: mean / Fr.: mesnil. Meen = main house, large,
common house in a village where people gathered, justice was spoken, decisions proposed, discussed and voted. In fact, a
meen is a commune. All of ancient northwest Europe was organized in such a Celtic way . Each commune had some liberty
to adhere to a tribe. The degree of dependence determined whether it was an effective part of that tribe and the
influence it enjoyed within the tribe council. On the outskirts of the tribal territory were the most independent meens.
Eburoni: *Eibe + *boer. 'Eibe' means yew. It's the same word as if in French and ijf in Dutch. 'Boer' = farmer. Eburon = plural of Ebur or eibboer. During the late Roman Empire the region was called Taxandria from Latin: taxus = yew (also written as Toxandria). Yew grows reasonably well upon sandy soils. Most of the western part of the territory of the Eburoni is sandy. As the local farmers were poor, they supplemented their income by growing yew. Yew was and is the main sort of wood to make bows. The famous English longbow was made of yew. Yew which grows slowly upon colder, sandy soils is of prime quality, because of the greater fibre density. Yew from Taxandria was famous in Gaul. Although the Gauls had their own yew, the Eburonian yew had a special para-Brythonic (Gaulish) name: eburo. The Eburoni called themselves Tunger (Tungri) = "who speak our tongue". According to Caesar: Germanic. They inflicted the greatest military defeat to Caesar during his campaign in 'Gaul'. One and a half legion was slaughtered, or some 7500 men. As a measure of revenge, Caesar officially genocided, wiped out, the complete tribe. But a complete genocide was never performed. Caesar admitted that other genocides such as against the Menapii failed. Later, the Eburoni re-emerged as Tungri in the official Roman nomenclature, to honour the 'work' of 'divine' Caesar.
Aduatuci= 'river-dent'. Probably from proto-Germanic (pgm) *ahwo, water, river + Du.:'deuk',dent, derived
from Du.: 'duiken'= to duck, dive; OE: duce; from pgm *duk-an, a downward movement, which all gives: "[people from
a] dent in the landscape with a river" = valleys of Sambre and Meuse. Indeed, these valleys appear abrupt because they
pierce through a plateau. According to Caesar: Germanic. They were expected at the battle of the Sabis (Selle), but came
too late. Anyhow, the size of their narrow homeland does not promise many thousands of warriors. Their arrival would
probably not have made much of a difference. Their name is too distorted by Caesar to be interpreted with certainty.
Anyhow, there is no decent etymology in Brythonic either.
Condrusi : "high valley people" from *comb (hill - even today in northeast England), compare: Bar Comb near Vindolanda. The second part is probably 'to rise', 'rose'. 'Comb'+'rose' = 'Condruse' with alteration of 'b' into 'd'. The region still exists and is called 'Condroz'. They lived upon higher ground which border the Sambre and Meuse valleys, close to the 'deep-valley' dwellers, the Aduatuci.
Atrebates : *bat is probably a very old PIE word means housing . The word could be related to the ancient
meaning of 'bath' and 'to bathe' = keeping warm. "Atre" was interpreted in Brythonic as 'black', ('ater' : Latin =
black) although this is unlikely. An other possibility is 'hearth' in a German plural 'hearther' so : 'hearther+bath' =
"the houses with the chimneys, hearths". The region is rich in limestone and this material could have been used to build
hearths, in contrast to the region slightly to the north, where no natural stone worthy the name is found, therefore, no
stone hearths could be build. The tribe was probably in its majority Germanic speaking although indications for it are
scarce. Only the Germanic etymology of local place-names give us some certainty. But the strange story of Commius,
an Atrebate trustee of Caesar, can contain also a clue. He accompanied Caesar into Britain. Why was Commius needed in
Britain? Caesar needed him because of his high ranking family relations and acquaintances in Britain. We think that
Commius mastered the local language in Britain well: proto-English. Commius would later flee to Britain. This points to
the use of a Germanic language by the Atrebates too. Apart from that, it is worth mentioning that they fought together
with the Nervians against Caesar. It is unlikely that they spoke a different language from the Nervians.
Viromandui : probably 'wier' + 'mund'. 'Wier' = house + 'mund' = protector, tutor (like in the name Edmund). So:
"protected houses" or "protectors of their houses". They also fought with the Nervians against Caesar in the battle of
the Sabis. Note: the name can also mean "men being the boss at home" - but that would be the first tribe in the world to
Ambiani: Umbe + Aa = around the water (Old Saxon aha, Old English: ea, etc.
proto-Germanic *ahwo-. Except in Latin, aqua, no connection with other PIE languages outside Germanic were
found). There is today a Aa river to the north of the Somme. At the time, the river Somme itself was called 'Aa'. This
construction has the signature of a Germanic language. 'Ambi' is the Gallic version of the Germanic 'umbe, ombe',
around. As Caesar's interpreters understood what Umbe-Aa meant, they dictated : Ambiani. The modern town Abbeville
was called Abacivo villa (in the 6th century). The first part is derived from proto-Germanic *ahwo-, (near)
water, river, the second *-civo is obscure but could be short for civilis or civitas (place of Roman
administration); villa means important farm.
Remi, Suessiones, Bellovaci, Belgian-Gaulish tribes: etymology unknown. We have very little direct evidence of the para-Brythonic (Gaulish) language. Remark that the name (not the language) of some of them such as the 'Suessiones' could be of Germanic origin. Place-name studies have revealed that the language border during the early Bronze Age must have been much closer to the Seine, especially the lower Seine. Over 4000 years the language border moved to the north. A para-Brythonic language (Gaulish) gradually replaced the original Germanic language.
Arduenna Silva or the Ardennes. Note first of all that it is about a forest (silva), not a higher plateau. The
classic Gaulish explanation is from Delamarre (who saw Gaulish everywhere): *arduo-, high ground, hill. However,