How old is English?

Etymology of Votadini

Votadini. Pronounced 'wotadini' and translated in Welsh the name became first Guotodin, later Gododdin. 'W' becomes 'gu'. This is valid for Germanic words which were introduced in the French language (war -> guerre) and for English words which became loanwords in Brythonic (Welsh). This works only in that direction. No 'gu-' in Brythonic becomes 'w-' in English. The name Votadini is officially supposed to be 'British', an assumed Brythonic language which was allegedly spoken en England. Strange enough, the fact that the name Wotadini had to be adapted to the Welsh language logic, from one alleged member of the Celtic language family to one other member, did not alarm the historical etymologists. There is a reason for that.

British etymologists proposed some time ago a hypothetical British Language, which is supposed to be a member of the Celtic language family.  Such a hypothetical language (there is no evidence) comes very handy because one can fill in oneself most of the hypothetical language features and reconstruct most of the supposed British Language words. This proposed idiom has apparently some strange characteristics such as being very different in some aspects from other Celtic languages. One of these is the idea that there are words in British Language which begin with 'w' and that they have to be translated to the other Celtic languages, where 'w' becomes 'gu'.
Is it a complete coincidence that the only attested transformations ['w' -> 'gu'] concern Germanic loanwords? An example is the name Wilhelm (William) that became Guillaume in French. Or war became 'guerre'.  In general, the insular Celtic languages (Welsh, Irish) react in the same way as the French language does. French kept some Celtic language features.
There can be only one possible conclusion: the word Votadini is not Brythonic in origin but Germanic.

It has the same meaning as the name of the German top-god Wodan. The root is 'wode' (anger, fury, etc.). So 'Woda(n)den' = the angry ones, or, according to their southern victims, those furious bastards, with the Old English '-en' plural (like in children) which became '-in' in Latin.  They must have had a habit of looting their richer southern neighbours. The Welsh poem 'Y Gododdin' testifies of that.
The name could have be an exonym (name given by others = their southern victims). This leads to a new conclusion: the Votadini, living in southeast Scotland, spoke a Germanic language.

A alternative and attested name for the same people is 'Otadin', where the 'w' was dropped.  This is not so strange as it looks. Wodan is known as Odin in Norway. The English word 'word' becomes 'ord' in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish ( see: Scandinavians have a habit to drop the leading 'w'. Which leads to the deductive conclusion that 'Otadin' was the endonym, the local name of Wotadin(i) and not a scribal error.

To summarize: The Votadini had a Germanic name, spoke a Germanic language and the alternative name Otadini confirms our hypothesis that the region north of the Humber, the former Northern Maglemosian language zone, spoke a Scandi-proto-English language, a language much closer to the Scandinavian languages than the southeast proto-English language.  Note also that the name Votadini dates from the Roman times.

Compare with the classic explanation ( :
In Ptolemy's forms, it is to be noted that d for l (d for l) and vice versa is not uncommon in his text, hence Otalini. To explain the omission of initial Ou- (V-), Williams suggested that a blank was left in the archetype for a capital to be decorated with penwork, and that this was never filled. This is possible, as the name begins a paragraph, but such an error does not appear to affect precisely comparable names. Ravenna's entry is as usual accepted as trustworthy by R&C, both as a form and as a fort of the Antonine Wall (in whose section it occurs).
Their etymology is : British *vo- (Old Irish fo- glossed 'sub', Old Welsh guo, go 'rather, somewhat') plus *litan- 'broad', hence 'rather broad place', with reference to a small plateau. This is acceptable up to a point, but it is very likely that (as first suggested by Holder) Volitanio is simply a rendering of Votadini, with metathesis of vowels of a kind paralleled elsewhere in the text.

DERIVATION. There can be no doubt that the proper form is Votadini, given the Welsh derivative Guotodin, later Gododdin. On the latter, important in the history of Welsh verse, see Jackson, The Gododdin (Edinburgh, 1969), especially 69-75, on the location of the Manau Guotodin of Nennius (62). Watson CPNS 28 says that in an eleventh-century Gaelic poem there appears Fotudain, which corresponds exactly to the Welsh forms. According to Watson the name can be compared with early Irish fothad 'support' ('Fothad, a mythical ancestor of an Irish people, perhaps derived from * Vo-tâdos' : O'Rahilly EIHM 10, note), with a suffix -in- as in many ethnic names. The sense is not entirely clear, but seems preferable to others suggested by Holder II. 887. See also I. Williams, Canu Aneirin (Cardiff, 1938), xviii.

As you can read: some very intelligent people excel in explaining what in fact cannot be explained in their world, the All Celtic British World. They admit that the result is a hugely uncertain conclusion. They are simply wrong.

*camb- is Germanic (*kambaz) and PIE (*ǵómbʰ-) and meant 'teeth, heights' in an otherwise flat landscape or 'what pierces through'. The modern word comb is derived. The key feature is the sudden or lone appearance of the structure.

Cambridge: litterally: 'the bridge at the cambe.' The cambe is castle hill. On that hill a castle was built on top of a Roman camp. Below the castle was a bridge. Travelers, boatsmen and merchants had to pay for the passage because the bridge and the road leading to it needed to be maintained, which cost money. Further upstream, to the south, was a dam, a wooden weir to maintain the water level of the Granta river artificially high and calm. This place might be the modern Mill. Raised water levels helped flat-bottomed ships to sail farther. That dam too cost money. We think that one word for dam complexes during Roman times was cunetio. Later, many water mills were built on such places. The unique paying point was at the bridge. Of course, a slight profit for the local lord was included. The Roman name for Cambridge was Duroliponte : duro (door, payable passage) + lee (water, river) + ponte (a Gallic loanword meaning bridge or ferry).

Etymology of Edinburgh

Present-day Edinburgh was the location of Din Eidyn, a dun or hillfort associated with the kingdom of the Gododdin. Several medieval Welsh sources refer to Eidyn. (Wikipedia)

The version Eidyn was mentioned in Welsh first. But that is not sufficient to state that the region of Edinburgh was Welsh or Gaelic speaking. After all, the first mention of Londinium was in Latin and nobody will argue that it means that the locals spoke Latin.
In the Wikipedia article is also affirms that the Old English word burgh meant fort. That is probably not right. More about berg/burg/burgh here. It meant 'protected, fenced, walled, village'. The castle is younger than the city. The castle was build to control the city, as a sign of power, not to protect it.

More likely is that Eidyn is derived from Odan/Odin, from (V)Otadini (see previous chapter above). The pronunciation in Welsh is close to 'Aa-dunn' (the 'u' could be aphonic or a schwa, similar to the 'a' in Odan). We have to take in account that the sound represented by the first 'o' could not have been accurately noted. People who wrote the word could have done it with a Latin twist or a Latin/Welsh twist. Place-names have been constantly altered, twisted, adapted when it were foreign place-names. Dover became Douvre in French, London is Londres in French or Llundain in Welsh, Antwerpen even Amberes in Spanish. Odan > Oadun > Eudun (=Eidyn - the old 'y' was pronounced 'ü') is possible. Then we have some choice in semantics: Odan/Odin can refer to the god: Odin's place' or it is short for something like 'Odin's people'. Compare with the Danish town of Odense.
Possible is also that the original name was simply 'Burgh', for the natives needed not to remember themselves how they were called. The Welsh/Gaelic version Eidyn was then an exonym, which for some reason was taken over by this Burgh's citizens as 'edin-'.

Caedwalla: not a Celtic name! The last part is probably -walla, walda, meaning power, force, strength.  Derived is the verb walden, 'to rule'.  The word is found in all Germanic languages. Latin: valere. Names are: Walfried, Waldemar (Voldemor!), Waldrada, Walbert, Wealdwine, Walram, walraven, Walter, and more, e.g. Herald, where -wald comes last. However, the difference with -wahl, foreigner from the south, is sometimes difficult to make.  Against -walla = Welsh is the fact that the Welsh called themselves Cymry. So the name is probably not Welsh, remains: Germanic. A third possibility is wahl, OHG wale = choice.
The first part is the OE word (ge)gada, 'companion'; OS gigado, 'id'; DU gade, 'partner, wife'. The verb in MDU gaden, 'to hear'; MNG gaden, 'to fit, unite'; OHG bigaton, 'to fit, come together'; OFR gadia, 'to unite'. English: to gather. This could be a substrate word. I plead for Caed-walla = powerful companion, or, who has the power to gather [men] - as the most likely etymology. 


(WIKI) Modern discovery: Although Bede specifically notes that English was Cædmon's "own" language, the poet's name is of Celtic origin: from Proto-Welsh *Cadṽan (from Brythonic *Catumandos).[6] Several scholars have suggested that Cædmon himself may have been bilingual on the basis of this etymology, <<
Speaking about a modern discovery! How easily bilingual people were in the distant past! This solves a lot of problems apparently. Forget Bede's futile specification: Caedmon was Brythonic speaking! Forget the fact that neither Bede nor Caedmon were known as Welshmen. Modern Celticists know better than these ancient witnesses.
Interesting is the circular reference to Catumandos/Catumandus. Catumandus was a minor chieftain in southern Gaul, the Marseille region, from around 390 BC. That is why he is supposed to bear a Celtic/Brythonic name. Problem is that the name was never convincingly explained in Brythonic. However, this region was dominated by a Germanic elite, as discussed in this website. The name Catumandus could therefore well be Germanic. Catu- : cot - where common people lived in + mandu : mund, mouth, protector, guardian, custody holder, 'who speaks in his/their name', thus Catumandus: guardian of the people. Indeed, he was a chief.
This Caed- is the same as in Caedwalla. Caed= comrade, companion; mon = short for -monde, -munde = tutor, protector, possibly related to 'mond, mund' = mouth > guardian. Compare: Edmund (Ed- = heritage). Caedmon = companion guardian.
Not Celtic at all. Very English.

Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes (1st century.) where the first part is probable 'care, cared' + 'ti'(you, thou) + munda = guardian [+ 'wa,wo' = woman]. Cartimandua = thou caring she-guardian.

Boudicca: is the subject of a separate paper!

Saxon: 'Sak(e)s', the 's' is possibly an inflexion. Old Saxon: saka; Old High German: sahha (German: Sache); Old Frisian: seke, sake, OE: sacu (NE: sake); Old Norse: sök ;
All meaning "cause, lawsuit, feod, complaint, issue, dispute, battle”), from Proto-Germanic *sako (idem), from Proto-Indo-European *sag- (“to investigate”). The second part could be 'son'. The (German) Saxons must have been known to their southern neighbours as looters and troublemakers. This corresponds greatly with the meaning of German: 'gear'(trusting spear)-man. The etymology of the word Saxon explains why they did not have a good reputation and why in north and middle Britain the more neutral word 'Angles' was preferred. The word Saxon had in Old English the very same meaning as in the rest of the Germanic world. Litus Saxonum can thus be translated as 'troublemakers coast'. In proto-English the word Saxon did not refer specifically to the north Germans. The word 'Saxon' was a synonym for the modern word Viking. The word Viking is a late, medieval word. Before it was 'Northman' (early Middle Ages) and before that it was Saxon. The latter was picked up in Latin.

The name of this goddess is primarily a Germanic one. Boudi = bode = commander, akin to 'to bid'. Hillia = hilda = (honorific) fight. She was equalized with Athena and Minerva. Both Mediterranean goddesses were goddesses of the mind, art, craft and martial arts. Boudihillia = 'she who controls a fight'. Her name was found near Hadrian's Wall where many Batavians and Belgians served.