How old is English?

 

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More confirmations

 

Stephen Oppenheimer reveals in his book more facts which point toward a language split in Britain. A language border is more than just a change of language. It is a border of culture, traditions, mentalities.

Coins

"The history of early coins in Britain reveals a pre-Roman influence that is predominantly derived from north Gaul. The earliest coins to circulate in south-east England, c.150 BC, were made in Gaul and were produced by the Belgae. The richest Iron Age treasure ever discovered in Britain was unearthed at Snettisham in Norfolk. A burial date of c. 70 BC is suggested by coins found in the majority of such hoards as grave goods, along with bronze, silver and golden torcs. Coins were subsequently produced locally throughout southern England, but not in contemporary Cornwall, Wales, Scotland or Ireland." (page 11)

The Belgae also lived upon a language border. Typically they often were the first to imitate or copy what was new, fashionable and valuable. The Germanic Morini (today: West Flemish) spread the coins to South-England. On the other side of the Channel, in Kent, almost the same language was spoken.

Limited genetic influx

 

Genetic map

Oppenheimer discovered a genetic exception here (in yellow):
Each ancient European region has its specific and unique genetic mix. The Welsh are genetically close to the Basques, but their mix is still different. So are the Irish, the Bavarians, the Danes, etc. The Kentish and West-Belgian populations are the exception. Their mix is statistically almost identical, despite the English Channel. Kent was the first known 'Anglo-Saxon' kingdom.

"The real surprise was to find that Belgium moving farther west into England than Frisia or the rest, and nesting into a group consisting of the three central English towns of Weale's transect line - as if to bear out Caesar's claim that some English regions were more Belgian than British. Northern France and the Netherlands, although bordering the English samples, were all much closer to England than Denmark or Rosser's central German sample" (page 368)

This conclusion is important if we want to understand how proto-English came to England.

Scientifically, there is one problem: no genetic findings can be linked to a language. Genetics alone are insufficient to prove the presence of any language. The combined evidence with other than genetic findings is far more powerful.